Treatment For Hyperglycemia or increased sugar

Hyperglycemia or increased sugar

Increased blood sugar or blood sugar level is called Hyperglycemia. This is a known problem in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia can occur in patients with  type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes , and gestational diabetes —any type of diabetes.

Although the terms hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia look similar, they have opposite meanings. If the blood sugar level falls below the minimum normal level , then that condition is called hypoglycemia On the other hand, an increase in blood sugar or sugar above the normal level is called Hyperglycemia .

Sometimes hyperglycemia can occur even in someone without diabetes who has a history of certain illnesses. Some such illnesses are—a brain stroke, heart attack, or a serious infection.

This article discusses the effects and treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes.

Symptoms of high blood sugar

Symptoms of hyperglycemia in diabetics usually develop slowly over days or weeks. Some people may have no symptoms before their blood sugar reaches too high a level.

Some of the symptoms of hyperglycemia are-

  • Excessive thirst
  • Occasional dry mouth
  • Frequent urination
  • Physical and mental fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • Weight loss without effort
  • Repeated infections. For example – thrush, cystitis or skin infection
  • stomach ache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Breath smells like sweet fruit 

Since the symptoms of hyperglycemia can indicate the presence of diabetes, even if you know that you do not have diabetes, if these symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor to be sure about this. If necessary, you can also take the test.

Causes blood sugar levels to rise 

Blood sugar levels can rise in diabetics for various reasons. For example –

  • stress
  • Any illness (eg: cold problem)
  • Eating extra meals (ie: eating three meals plus a variety of snacks)
  • not exercising
  • Missing a dose of diabetes medicine or taking wrong dose of medicine
  • Taking certain medications (eg steroids)
  • If hypoglycemia occurs due to low blood sugar , continue additional treatment as needed

It should be noted that hyperglycemia can sometimes occur in growing children and adolescents. 

Normal blood sugar levels

After being diagnosed with diabetes for the first time, ask your doctor for the following two things:

  1. How are your blood sugar levels?
  2. Sugar needs to be reduced to what level 

Blood sugar levels can be monitored by regular diabetes tests at home with the help of a blood sugar measuring machine or glucometer. Or you can go to the hospital every 2-3 months and get a diabetes test called HbA1c . This test gives an idea of ​​the average blood sugar level and whether the sugar is being controlled. Generally HbA1c values ​​below 6.5% are good.  

Not everyone has the same blood sugar target. However, the following targets are generally considered as normal blood sugar levels—

  • Glucometer: 4 to 7 mmol/L on empty stomach and 8.5 to 9 mmol/L 2 hours after eating
  •  HbA1c test: 6.5 percent or below 48 mmol/mol

What happens when blood sugar rises?

The main goal of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. However, even after taking precautions, diabetic patients may experience hyperglycemia at some stage. 

Diagnosing and treating hyperglycemia is very important. If left untreated, hyperglycemia can lead to a variety of serious health problems. 

All of a sudden, the sugar level of a diabetic patient may increase slightly. This is usually not much of a concern, as mild hyperglycemia can be cured with simple treatment. Sometimes even sugar drops to normal level without any special effort. However, if blood sugar levels rise too much or stay high for a long time, the consequences can be fatal.

Blood sugar levels that are too high can cause life-threatening complications. For example –

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis — This condition occurs when the body needs to break down fat for energy. As a result of the breakdown of fat, chemicals called ketone bodies are produced in the body. Accumulation of excess ketone bodies can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis—which can lead to a diabetic coma. This problem usually occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes.
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state — When blood sugar reaches too high a level, the body tries to get rid of this excess sugar. Severe dehydration occurs in this process. This condition usually occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes.

If blood sugar levels remain consistently high month after month, permanent damage can occur to various parts of the body. For example: eyes, nerves, kidneys and blood vessels—may be damaged for life.

So if you have regular hyperglycemia, seek immediate medical attention. Some medical and lifestyle changes may be necessary to keep blood sugar levels close to healthy levels.

What to do if blood sugar rises 

If symptoms of hyperglycemia occur in a diabetic patient, the doctor’s recommendations for blood sugar control should be followed. If you are not clear about what to do, talk to your doctor to be sure about what to do.

Home remedies to reduce sugar

1. Food changes: Avoiding foods that raise blood sugar may be advised. These foods include cakes, sweets and various sugary drinks.

2. Drinking plenty of water and sugar-free drinks: This will resolve dehydration caused by very high levels of hyperglycemia. 

3. Regular exercise: Even light exercise like regular walking can help control blood sugar. For overweight people, various exercise methods help in losing weight. Weight control reduces the risk of hyperglycemia.

4. Change in insulin dose: Insulin users may need to change the insulin dose to control blood sugar. Specific advice should be taken from the doctor in this regard.

5. Regular monitoring: Diabetic patients are advised to measure their blood sugar regularly. A blood or urine ketone test may also be used to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis. You should also watch for any new symptoms until your blood sugar is fully under control. Such symptoms may indicate a serious problem 

When to seek emergency medical care

In addition to having high blood sugar level, the following symptoms should be immediately contacted to the doctor-

  • If nausea or vomiting occurs
  • If stomach ache and diarrhea 
  • When breathing becomes deep and rapid
  • If you have a fever for more than 24 hours (ie, a temperature above 38°C or 100.4°F)
  • Symptoms of dehydration (eg headache, dry skin, fast and weak heartbeat)
  • Drowsiness or difficulty staying alert

These symptoms may be signs of serious complications caused by hyperglycemia (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state). In all these cases, it is necessary to go to an emergency hospital for treatment. 

Ways to prevent high blood sugar 

The risk of severe or long-term hyperglycemia can be reduced by taking some simple steps. For example –

  • Be careful with food and drink. Be especially aware of how sugary or sweet foods can affect blood sugar levels.
  • Follow the treatment regimen properly. Take medication regularly and continue taking insulin as advised by your doctor.
  • Try to be active as much as possible rather than being sedentary. Regular exercise helps control blood sugar levels. However, those taking diabetes medication should consult a doctor before starting exercise. Because heavy exercise or heavy physical activity while taking some medications can cause hypoglycemia due to the effect of the medication on the amount of sugar.
  • Take extra care when sick. The doctor may advise you to follow some special tips to control blood sugar when you are sick.

Measure blood sugar regularly . Measure blood sugar regularly with a glucometer at home. So that when any change occurs, it is detected quickly and necessary measures can be taken.

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